Glossary of Terms

Chain of custody: The path that goods (raw materials, processed materials and products) take from the forest to the consumer, including all stages of processing, transformation, manufacturing and distribution.

Endangered forest: A forest that is so rare, threatened, or ecologically vulnerable and of such global biological significance, that any logging or commercial use could damage its conservation value beyond repair.

Forest certification: The process by which the environmental, social, and economic integrity of a managed forest is inspected, measured and certified by a credible third party.

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC): An independent, membership-based, non-profit organization that supports environmentally responsible, socially beneficial and economically viable management of forests around the world. The FSC sets standards, provides certification systems and trademark recognition, and provides accreditation services for companies and organizations interested in responsible forestry.

FSC-certified: A product, process or service that has been certified (by an FSC-accredited certification body) as compliant with the applicable FSC standard.

FSC-eligible products: Products that meet the approval of an FSC-accredited certification body as being covered by the scope of a chain of custody certificate AND that contain the minimum content requirements for FSC labeling.

FSC-pure wood/fibre: Virgin or fibre wood that comes from an FSC-certified forest. It can be sold as ‘pure wood/fibre' by the owner of a valid FSC chain of custody or joint forest management and chain of custody certificate.

Post-consumer waste: Paper material that has been recovered for recycling from waste generated by consumers once it has served its intended end use.

Pre-consumer waste: Paper generated during the papermaking process that never reaches the consumer. This waste can be mill broke or paper waste returned to the mill for use as a pulp substitute.

Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI): The SFI program was developed by foresters, conservationists and scientists working together. It is a wide-ranging system of principles, objectives, and performance measures that combines the continual growing and harvesting of trees with the protection of wildlife, plants, soil, and water quality.

Recycled fibre: Fibre that has been reclaimed from a previous product and reprocessed and incorporated into a new product. Sources of fibre for recycling may be reclaimed pre-consumer or reclaimed post-consumer material.

Virgin wood: Wood (round wood, sawn wood, or industrial co-products or by-products) that is traceable to forest sources.

Hierarchy of Pulping and Bleaching Processes

Processed Chlorine Free (PCF) and Totally Chlorine Free (TCF):1 The terms PCF and TCF refer to paper produced without chlorine or chlorine compounds. Instead, the paper is made using oxygen-based compounds. In today's market, PCF paper is preferable as it contains recycled fibre, while TCF is only used to refer to 100% virgin paper.

Enhanced ECF with ozone or hydrogen peroxide: Uses ozone or hydrogen peroxide as a brightening agent in the initial stages of bleaching. (Final or near final stage still uses chlorine dioxide.

Elemental Chlorine: Uses elemental chlorine to bleach pulp. In the US, elemental chlorine was phased by April 2001 as per EPA's Cluster Rule.

Elemental Chlorine Free ("traditional ECF"): Uses chlorine dioxide rather than elemental chlorine.

1 Source: The Environmental Paper Summit, 2002